Adam & 18c gap

Note: pages in our 18c Leverhulme study section were originally published on the website in 2010. Links have since been checked and updated.

Examples which plug the OED gap in 18th-century quotations: Adam Table 4a

WordQuotationOED datesFills 18th-century gap (number of years between existing OED quotations)Comments
bear, v.'Who Digs and Dungs to see if it [i.e. a tree] would bear' (p. 22)1398, c1400, Mod.480OED1/2 identifies an absolute use of bear s.v. sense 42, 'To bring forth, produce, yield', in relation to plants etc., and illustrates it with two ME quotations plus one designated 'Mod[ern]', here dated to 1880. It seems unlikely that Adam's use is unusual over the undocumented period.
treasure-house'the Prize / That in the Treasure House of Glory lys' (p. 19)1552, 1598, 1890, 1895292OED quotations reported for figurative sense – but there are no quotations for the literal sense between the 16th and 19th centuries either. ECCO searches suggest quotations could easily be found.
howbeit'Howbeit I'll try, and, as I can, I'll sing' (p. 5)1612, 1850238Other 18th-century examples can be found on ECCO.
antetype'Amongst Transgressors Joseph numbred lies, / Like his great Antetype above the Skies'; 'Doest thou not see the Eucharistick Wine? It's Antitype makes Souls of Saints to shine' (pp. 761, 101 (& 102))1612, 1844232OED defines as 'A preceding type; an earlier example', and supplies only two examples: 1612 T. TAYLOR Comm. Titus i. 6 (1619) 99 Antetypes of Christ's puritie. 1844 MARG. FULLER Wom. in 19th C. (1862) 74 She is an antetype of a class to which the coming time will afford a field.
Other 18th-century examples may be found on ECCO.
breed, v.'Perhaps some Rustick's Visite breeds thee Pett' (p. 53)1601, 1651, 1878227It's not quite clear how this should be construed: 'breeds a pet in thee', or maybe thee = thy. But the sense of breed looks like OED1 6a: 'To give rise to, engender, develop, produce, create, cause, be the source of.'
patent, adj.'his unerring Guide was plac'd within, / Whose Wisdom pav'd a patent Road for him'; 'It beats the patent Road to every Sin'; 'Who [...] shuns the patent Road' (pp. 73, 80, 97)...1508, 1528, 1639, 1857, 1874...218Relevant sense is OED3 (draft entry Sept 2009) 4a: 'Of a fact, quality, phenomenon, etc.: clear, evident, obvious'.
depute, n.'The Deput Conscience justifies the Deed' (p. 148)...1563-7, a.1605, 1821, 1868216OED1/2 defines: 'B. n. One deputed; = DEPUTY. (Now only Sc.)'. Alternatively, Adam's usage could be construed as a ppl. a., for which OED's last recorded use is 1623.
divining, vbl. n.'Divining first expos'd him to Envy, / Trust made him serve, then in a Dungeon ly: / Divining led the Way to Joseph's Liberty, / And recommended him to Majesty' (p. 77)...1483, 1646, 1860214This is OED1/2 sense 1: 'The action of the verb DIVINE: a. Soothsaying, prophecy, divination. b. Conjecture, guessing', which is sparsely illustrated - 5 quotations in all.
transgressor'Amongst Transgressors Joseph numbred lies' (p. 76)...1638, 1667, 1875208OED1/2 has big gap: Milton 1667 to Jowett 1875. ECCO searches yield a number of other 18th-century examples.
flowerless'View the Leafless, Flowerless Tree' (p. 22)1500, 1806, 1835206Only three OED quotations in total; ECCO suggests this was a genuinely rare term in the 18th century but yields a handful of other examples.
compend, n.'Thou [divine Love] great Compend of both our Laws'; 'He on the Tables wrote the pure Compend' (pp. 39 (& 94), 93)1642, 1677, 1882205OED1/2 notes both literal and figurative senses of this word (= 'compendium') and has no 18th-century quotations for the second (they run 1642, 1677, 1882), of which Adam's usage is an example. (The literal sense is under-illustrated too - 1596, 1640, 1796, 1833, 1881.)
sophisticating'See thou abhorr sophisticating Arts' (p. 14)1624, 1823199 
hoodwinked'The Hoodwinkt Heroe faints, when thou retires' (p. 132)1640, a1643, 1643, 1837193OED defines 'Blindfolded, blinded. Lit, and fig.'; the second 1743 quot. is from Milton.
manuring'His Sons assist him in manuring Toil' (p. 62)1635, 1641, a1647, 1835, 1849188OED3 draft revision Sept 2000 defines as 'That manures or cultivates soil or land'. Clearly Adam's example fills the gap.
conjunct, ppl.'The Innocence of Doves is in A Christian requisite, / And yet the Serpent's Policy Must be conjunct with it (p. 13)1695, 1877182Could be construed as adj. (less likely), in which case Adam's example supplements OED1/2's existing quotations dated 1650, 1765, 1829.
divining'Now the divining Quality appears, / Which had lyen dormant since his [Joseph's] tender years' (p. 75)1382, 1593, 1697, 1876179This is defined by OED1/2 s.v. as 'That divines, foresees, or conjectures; soothsaying, prophesying, conjecturing, guessing, etc. and is sparsely illustrated from Wyclife, Shakespeare, Dryden, and George Eliot, all favourite quotation sources.
discord'They still conspire and still discord' (p.15)...1677, 1848...171OED1/2 s.v. verb 1, sense 1 (intr.).
canon'What dire Presumption [...] To wound GOD thro' his righteous Favourite, / And mock the Canon he 'gainst Murther set' (p. 60)...1601, 1658, 1827, 1859169This is OED1/2 sense 1a: 'A rule, law, or decree of the Church; esp. a rule laid down by an ecclesiastical Council': Adam's example fills a clear gap.
impotent, n.'A helpless impotent stretchd on his Bed' (p. 67)1513, 1596, 1662, 1685, 1833148OED1/2 sense B. n.: An impotent person.
declare'Shall Nature's Works inanimate / Declare the Power of God?' (p. 26)1668, 1810142OED1/2 sense 4: 'trans. Of things: To manifest, show, demonstrate, prove'.
custom-free'Who would not land his Cargoe Custom free' (p. 62)a1680, 1810130This is recorded in OED1/2 s.v. custom, n., 6a, among attributive and combinatorial usages: 'custom-free a., free from custom, toll, or tribute; free from custom duty', and provided with just two examples: 'a1680 BUTLER Rem. (1759) I. 80 To take up a Degree, With all the Learning to it, *Custom-free. 1810 in Risdon's Surv. Devon App. 17 from Tax and Toll, such as Custom-free.', so Adam's would be useful as ever.
soulless'Shall soulless Sun his Task fulfil / Of driving round the Globe' (p. 26)...1678, 1801...123Probably Adam's use is OED1/2 sense 1: 'Having no soul; from whom or which the soul has departed. Also fig.' It could also come under sense 3, applied to 'things, qualities, etc.', which has no quotations between 1656 and 1853.
unconsulted'Pure Nature's unconsulted Harmony' (p. 117)1619, 1642, 1829, 1847, 188487OED1/2 defines sense 2 as 'Not consulted (with) or referred to; the 1642 quotation is from Milton.

Last updated on 30 July 2019